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Secrets of 5-Axis Machining By Karlo Arpo

Secrets of 5-Axis Machining By Karlo Arpo
PDF + Companion CD (.EXE Including Videos) | 2008 | ISBN: 0831133759 | 160 pages | English | 507 MB

Are you utilizing 5-axis machining? Could your shop benefit from the efficiency and power that 5-axis machining offers? The majority of people not embracing this technology lack a true understanding of 5-axis practices. There are many common misconceptions on the subject, and the intent of this book is to demystify 5-axis machining and bring it within the reach of anyone interested in using the technology to its full potential.

The author has instructed countless multiaxis training classes over the past decade. These classes covered topics such as operating CNC equipment, programming CNC equipment, both manually and with CAD/CAM systems, and building virtual machines with different verification systems. Through the years, the author has met many professionals around the world and has come to a realization that they all have the same questions, misconceptions, and concerns, when it comes to 5-axis machining. The need for unbiased information on the subject became apparent.

Up to this point, the best way to get information on 5-axis machining was to talk to peers in the industry, in the hope that they would share what they had learned. Visiting industrial trade shows and talking to machine tool and CAD/CAM vendors are other options - except that these people all give their individual points of view and will promote their own machine or solution. Everybody claims to have the best mouse-trap, and it is left to the individual to choose the right one.

This book is not a training manual for any particular machine or CAD/CAM system. Rather, it is an overview of multiaxis machine types and the common control methods that CAD/CAM systems use to drive the machines. The book will guide you through this realm, from basic to complex concepts, and will provide information to help you choose the right tools, including the machine, work-holding method, CAD/CAM system, and machine simulation package that will best suit your specific application. The book contains numerous illustrations to help you to precisely implement these tools.

Book Chapters


Chapter 1: History of 5-Axis Machines........3
Common Misconceptions........................4
Reasons to Use Multiaxis Machines.................8
Chapter 2: Know Your Machine.............13
Multiaxis Machine Configurations.................14
Table/Table Multiaxis Milling Machines..............18
Machine Rotary Zero Position (MRZP)..............21
Nesting Positions.............................26
Rotary Table Dynamic Fixture Offset...............27
Head/Table Multiaxis Milling Machines..............31
Head/Head Multiaxis Milling Machines..............36
Finding the Pivot Distance......................37
4-Axis Machines.............................39
General Maintenance & Issues for Multiaxis Machines ... 40
Milling Machines With Five- or More-Axes............43
Chapter 3: Cutting Strategies..............45
Chapter 4: Indexing Multiaxis Toolpaths.....49
Indexing Methods ...........................51
How CAD/CAM Systems Handle Indexing Work........56
Machine Coordinate Systems....................57
Machine Home Position ......................57
Active Coordinate System ....................57
Machine Rotary Center Point...................60
CAD/CAM System Origin.......................60
Synchronizing Machine and CAD/CAM Coordinate Systems . 61
Chapter 5: Simultaneous Multiaxis Toolpaths. .65
The Optimum Work Envelope....................70
Feedrates..................................72
Inverse Time Feedrate.......................74
Post Processors..............................76
Chapter 6: Common Simultaneous Multiaxis CAM Toolpath Controls.......................79
Cut Patterns................................79
Tool Axis Control.............................86
Tool Tip Control..............................90
Collision Control.............................93
Additional Multiaxis Issues and Controls.............98
Dovetail Effect.............................98
Cutting Direction..........................100
Multiaxis Roughing.........................101
Chapter 7: Machine Simulation............103
G-code Simulation Versus CAM Simulation..........105
Configuring Virtual Machines For Simulation.........105
Virtual Machine Building.......................106
The Skeleton.............................106
Components vs. Models.....................107
Machine Simulation Interfaces..................116
Using Machine Simulation.....................117
Chapter 8: Selecting The Right Machine For Your Application..............................119
Head/Head Machines (with long X or Y - axis linear travel, but limited rotary axes travel)..................121
Head/Table Machines (with long X-axis travel).......123
Head/Table Machines ........................126
Rotary Table - Tilting Head Combinations..........128
Table/Table Machines.........................132
Gantry Type Head/Head Machines................134
Chapter 9: Choosing a CAD/CAM System For Your Application............................137
Special Purpose Software......................137
CAD/CAM Toolbox...........................139
Multiaxis CAD/CAM Considerations...............139
Multiaxis CAM..............................140
Multiaxis CAD/CAM Training....................144
Behind the Scenes: CAD/CAM Software Development . . 145
General Guidelines for Researching CAD/CAM Software. . 146
Chapter 10: Putting It All Together.........149
Why Use Multiaxis Machining Techniques?..........152
What is a Standard 5-Axis Machine?..............153
What is the Standard Axis Convention?............154
What are the Three Major Multiaxis Machine Types? . . . 154
What are the Major Building Blocks of a CNC Machine? . 156
What are the Most Important Physical Positions of a Multiaxis Machine?..........................157
What Tools are Needed to Find MRZP?.............159
Description of Indexing/Rotary Positioning Work......159
What is a Post Proccessor?.....................159
Definition of an Axis.........................160
Defining a Simultaneous 5-axis Toolpath...........160
What are the Three Common Simultaneous Multiaxis CAM Toolpath Controls............................161
Multiaxis Machine Offsets......................161
Finding Machine Rotary Zero Position..............162
Finding the Pivot Distance.....................164
Indexing/Rotary Position Work Overview...........166
Picking a CAD/CAM System for Multiaxis Work.......166
Machine Simulation..........................167
Conclusion................................167

CD Contents


Machine Simulation

Vertical, 5-axis, Head/Table machine cutting a turbine blade using dynamic Tool Axis
Control
Haas EC400 horizontal, 4-axis machine demonstrating simple positioning work
Huron vertical, 5-axis, nutating, Table/Table machine cutting a dish using a single
point for Tool Axis Control
Haas VF2, vertical, 5-axis Table/Table machine cutting a blade of an impeller
Mori Seiki NMV5000 vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine cutting a model of a human
head, using a spiral Cut Pattern applied to an underlying clean core
Chiron, vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine demonstrating indexing toolpaths.
Mitsubishi, vertical, 5-axis, Head/Head, laser cutting machine cutting a motorcycle
fender, using 3D curves for Cut Pattern.
Haas VF2, vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine cutting a turbine rotor using lines
for Tool Axis Control.
Okuma MU400A, vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine cutting a mold core, with the A-
axis locked to 45 degrees.
Chiron Magnum, vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine cutting one side of an impeller
blade using a curve for Tool Axis Control.
Okuma Millac 853PF, vertical, 5-axis, Head/Head machine cutting an aerospace
component, controlling both the Cut Pattern and Tool Axis with a Swarf toolpath.
Mori Seiki NMV5000 vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine cutting a blade on a blisk.
Mori Seiki NMV5000 vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine cutting the floor on a
blisk.
Chiron, vertical, 5-axis, Head/Table machine cutting a floor on a component, morphing between two curves while keeping the tool axis locked around the A-axis.
Chiron, vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine demonstrating 5-axis simultaneous motion
Chiron, vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine cutting the floor on a split impeller
DMU60, vertical, 5-axis Head/Table machine, demonstrating Tool Axis Control normal to a surfac.
DMU60, vertical, 5-axis Head/Table machine cutting a test part demonstrating indexing and simultaneous machining.
Haas VF2, vertical, 5-axis Table/Table machine cutting a test part demonstrating indexing and simultaneous machining.
Mitsubishi Laser, vertical, 5-axis Head/Head machine cutting a test part demonstrating indexing and simultaneous machining.
Haas VF2, vertical, 5-axis Table/Table machine cutting a test part demonstrating
indexing and simultaneous machining with material removal.
Okuma MA400, horizontal, 5-axis Table/Table machine cutting a test part demonstrating indexing and simultaneous machining.
Okuma 800vh, vertical/horizontal, 5-axis Head/Table machine cutting a test part demonstrating indexing and simultaneous machining.
Bostomatic, vertical, 5-axis Head/Table machine cutting a headport driving the center of the probe/tool
Huron vertical, 5-axis nutating Table/Table machine performing a trimming operation using 2 point tool axis control
Machining Videos
Induction pump in different stages of 5-axis machining.
Plunge roughing performed on a turbine blade.
A semi-finishing toolpath performed on a turbine blade.
A floor finishing toolpath performed on a turbine blade.
Machine Simulation Videos
Kuka 6-axis robot, showing off its flexibilities.
Mori Seiki NMV5000 vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine demonstrating test cuts when
MRZP and Program Zero are coinciding. TCP is not active.
Mori Seiki NMV5000 vertical, 5-axis, Table/Table machine demonstrating test cuts when
the part is moved in relation to MRZP. TCP is active.
Head/Table machine is demonstrating both RTCP (Rotary Tool Control Point) and RPCP
(Rotary Part Control Point).
2-axis, vertical Head/Table machine cutting a design into a bowling ball.
Forest Line vertical 5-axis Head/Head machine cutting a test part.
Engine head cut on a vertical, 5-axis, custom, dual rotary mechanism
Printable PDFs
Quiz found in Chapter 10
Quick Reference graphic showing Machine Offsets
Quick Reference for finding Machine Rotary Zero Point
Quick Reference for finding Pivot Distance
Catalog of ten different machines with all axes illustrated


Secrets of 5-Axis Machining By Karlo Arpo


Secrets of 5-Axis Machining By Karlo Arpo


Secrets of 5-Axis Machining By Karlo Arpo


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